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Active ingredient for novel anti-malaria-drug

Most efforts to design vaccine interventions against malaria has been focused on the blood stage of the parasite, which is responsible for the symptoms of the disease; and it is only now that a number of successful studies with gallate catechins  have provides a good scientific rationale to develop  a preventive drug against the pre-erythrocyte stages of the malaria parasite.    

It is in the specific target area that a bioavailable green tea gallate catechin extract has been identified as the potential active ingredient   of inhibiting the hexose uptake processes in infected erythrocytes; which is the primary mechanism of their anti-malarial activity and may involve interaction with alternative higher affinity target/s. Gallate catechins are able to inhibit motility and cause cytotoxcity through the form of several hydrogen structures and ionic bonds with proteins and thereby modulating their 3D structure. It has been shown that gallate catechins bind to adhesion molecules on the parasite surface and this impairs gliding, leading to an inactivation of the surface proteins and rendering the parasites immotile. 

In published in-vitro and animal model studies, gallate catechins have shown inhibiting qualities and anti-malaria properties.

Plasmodium sporozoites are the forms of the malaria parasite injected into the host during a blood meal of the mosquito; and they are then deposited within the skin, where they can move at a speed of around 1 µm/s. Some sporozoites can enter blood vessels and are transported to the liver, where they invade hepatocytes to differentiate into red blood cell invading merozoites.

  1. Gallate catechins bind to the intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM 1) on the endothelium thus blocking the adhesion of Plasmodium infected erythrocytes.
  2. Inhibits Plasmodium falciparum growth in vitro and potentiates the anti-malarial effects of artemisinin.
  3. Mechanism of inhibition of an enoyl-acyl carrier protein reductase of Plasmodium falciparum, resulting in the inhibition of the fatty acid biosynthesis in the parasite.

Malaria Journal Slavic et al. Malaria Journal 2011, 10:165

In 2012, Plandai Biotechnology is scheduled to undertake in-vitro and animal studies to validate its extract, Phytofare™-GCE, as an active ingredient for novel anti-malaria drugs.

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